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eSpira™ Forced Oscillatory Mechanics

Forced oscillation is a method to measure respiratory mechanics by use of small-amplitude pressure oscillations, which does not require the execution of forced respiratory manoeuvres.

eSpira Forced Oscillation, with Optional Aerosol Delivery


  • Respiratory profiling in Safety Pharmacology
  • Toxicological changes to the lung for safety assessment
  • Increases understanding of complex respiratory disease models


  • Pressure-Volume (PV) analysis
  • Single-frequency Snapshot measurements to provide airway resistance, compliance and elastance
  • Primewave manoeuvre for respiratory impedance (Hantos model)
  • Fully adjustable electronic Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP)


  • Simultaneously runs multiple subjects with a single PC
  • Multiple species supported, with tidal volumes from 10 µL
  • User-friendly eDacq software interface, comprehensive protocol driven assays and clearly summarized data output
  • Robust valves for high concentration reagent exposure
  • Small footprint Integrated and fully controlled aerosol delivery

Principles of Operation

Anaesthetised and intubated/cannulated animals are connected to the eSpira system. Ventilation (volume or pressure controlled) is then started, and the eDacq protocol is run to ensure that the experiment is carried out in a consistent manner. At the end of each run the data will be automatically summarised and saved to GLP standards.

One or all of the manoeuvres can be added to the protocol with voice prompts and reminders to ensure that nothing is missed or forgotten. Examples of protocol steps:

  • Pressure-limited TLC or a hyper-ventilation to recruit the airways and ensure stable baseline.
  • Volume and/or pressure controlled PV loop with Salazar Knowles data fit on expiration.
  • Snapshot resistance for single compartment model, by use of single sinusoidal frequency for resistance, compliance and elastance.
  • Primewave manoeuvre, which contains up to 19 multiple frequencies to provide a complex understanding of the lung impedance (values defined as G and H).
  • Aerosol delivery, timed and controlled by the protocol to deliver drug or a constriction agents. Can be synchronised with ventilation.
  • eSpira builds on EMMS’ experience of forced oscillation systems, and uses the principals first published in the 1980s.

Please contact EMMS for more information.






 EMMS Solutions  
eSpira™ Forced Manoeuvres
Resistance and Compliance
Whole Body Plethysmography
Head-Out Plethysmography
Double Chamber Plethysmography
Cardiac Action Potential
ECG Monitoring
Custom Solutions
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